konfeta (konfeta) wrote in daily_russian,


"ФИО" - frequently occurring abbreviation in official papers, forms and applications, standing for Фамилия-Имя-Отчество (Family name, Personal Name, Special form of father name).
For example, Иванов Сергей Михайлович.
Though there's a possibility to choose any name/family name/even father's name at the age of 18 and further, it's customary to take husband's family name after marriage and to pass this family name to children. The family names originated from personal names or nicknames, objects and so on. Nowadays they have no specific meaning.
Mostly, the Russian family names end with -ов, -ев, -ин, -ский, etc. (Романов, Горбачёв, Путин, Жириновский). Female version of the family name is formed by ending . (Романова, Горбачёва, Путина, Жириновская).

According to research results of "Русский генофонд" scientific project (http://genofond.ru) partially published in "Русский Newsweek" and "КоммерсантЪ-Власть", the most widespread family name in Russia is Смирнов.
NB: In addition to the Families Top-10 in "Русский Newsweek" and Top-250 in "КоммерсантЪ-Власть", there're some journalistic comments in these articles, so if you are going to read them, please bear in mind that "Русский генофонд" doesn't fully agree with these comments publishing a disclaimer.
But these Tops are quite convenient for our entertaining purposes.
The most widespread family names in Russia.
Top-10, % of population in Russia.
1. СМИРНОВ  1,862
2. ИВАНОВ     1,33
3. КУЗНЕЦОВ 0,998
4. СОКОЛОВ  0,856
5. ПОПОВ      0,806
6. ЛЕБЕДЕВ   0,742
7. КОЗЛОВ    0,636
8. НОВИКОВ   0,61
9. МОРОЗОВ  0,568
10. СОЛОВЬЁВ   0,486
Mostly, Russians have only one personal name, except for some rare special cases. Most widespread male names are Александр, Сергей, Андрей, Дмитрий, Игорь, female - Екатерина, Ирина, Елена, Татьяна, Светлана, Наталья, Ольга. These names are presented in their full form, while there're other familiar, endearment variants. Some are settled, others are the matter of personal creative works and warm relationship:
Сергей: Серёжа.
Дмитрий: Дима.
Владимир: Вова, Володя.
Григорий: Гриша.
Екатерина: Катя
Юлия: Юля
Наталья: Наташа
Мария: Маша

Отчество as a specific word based on father's personal name with definite suffix has ancient historical origins. It hasn't always been in exactly this form of the word as it is now. Now it's standartly formed from father's personal name when a child is born.
For example:
FPNameОтчество сынаОтчество дочери

Nowadays, the full form with the family name is an official form, stated in all legal papers. Addressing people with "имя-отчество" form in a daily life is a matter of relationship distance, certain family's traditions and personal preferences. Usually, using a full form (имя-отчество) indicates the respect of the age and position. Young people do not address persons of the same age by the full form.
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